Rahajeng Rahina Jagat Galungan Lan Kuningan…
Galungan is a sacred ceremony that gives a spiritual strength to be able to differentiate which life force from adharma and from budi atma which is a sound of the truth (dharma) in human’s soul. In addition to that, Galungan can give the ability to differentiate the giant tendency (asura sampad) and God tendency (dewa sampad). It should be realized that live happily or “ananda” is living with ability to master the giant tendency. Galungan also one of Hindus ceremony to remind the human as ritual and spiritual to always winning Dewi Sampad to uphold dharma against adharma. The conclusion of Galungan is a victory of dharma (goodness) against adharma (badness).
Galungan Day is Hindus ceremony that held once in every 6 months, so there are 2 time celebrations of Galungan Day in a year. In Lontar Sunarigama, Galungan Day has so many series of activities before and afterward as follows:
Sugian Jawa is the ceremonies that are performed to cleanse the bhuana agung (the environment of the individual human being, or macro-cosmos) and thebhuana alit (the micro-cosmos or the inner world of the individual human being) of negativity, and at the same time to create awareness of one’s sacred inner power. The three Sugian ceremonies are (sequential). The word jawa here is equal to the word jaba (= ‘outside’) and refers to the bhuana agung or macro-cosmos, which is the environment of the individual human being (the counterpart of the inner world of the individual human being, the micro-cosmos or bhuana alit).
Sugian Bali is the ceremonies that are performed to cleanse the bhuana agung (the environment of the individual human being, or macro-cosmos) and the bhuana alit (the micro-cosmos or the inner world of the individual human being) of negativity; at the same time they are meant to create awareness of one’s sacred inner power. In Sanskrit the word bali means ‘inner power’, which refers to the bhuana alit or micro-cosmos, the environment of the individual human being (the counterpart of the environment of the individual human being, the macro-cosmos or bhuana agung).
When the day of penyekeban has arrived, the fruits that will be used for the Galungan offerings are stored in a special place so that it will be ripe in time for Galungan Day. Penyekeban is derived from the Balinese word nyekeb which means ‘(to) ripen fruit’. Besides its literal meaning of ripening fruit, Penyekeban also has a (more important) symbolic meaning in respect with the bhuana alit (the inner world of the individual human being). In spiritual sense the individual, just like the fruits, has to ripen in order to be in a position to siege over adharma, the selfish urges, desires, and actions of the ego. Penyekeban is also the day that the first of the Sang Kala Tiga, SangBhuta Galungan, descends to earth to tempt mankind to adharma.
During Penyajaan Galungan special cakes (generally referred to as jaja) are prepared which will be used for the Galungan offerings. Penyajaan is derived from the High Balinese word jaya which means ‘glorious, victorious’. Galungan means ‘to make war, to fight’. In combination Penyajaan Galungun therefore means, ‘to be victorious in the war’ (against adharma). In a symbolic sense Penyajaan Galungan is the time that the Balinese Hindu’s should be ‘glorious and victorious’ in respect with their inner struggle against adharma so they will be safe for the second symbolic temptation of the Kala-tiganing Galungan (or Sang Kala Tiga) who descends this day to earth as Sang Bhuta Dungulan.
During the day of Penampahan Galungan animals are sacrificed (in particular pigs and chickens) as special offerings which are meant to get rid of negativity in both the bhuana agung (the environment of the individual human being) and the bhuana alit (the inner world of the individual human being); the meat is afterwards prepared and cooked for traditional Balinese dishes such as lawar, babi guling, and satay. At Penampahan Galungan the Kala-tiganing Galungan or Sang Kala Tiga in the shape of Sang Bhuta Amangkurat descends for the third and last time to earth to tempt mankind to adharma. Penampahan is derived from the Balinese word tampahwhich means ‘(to) kill, slaughter’. The killing of animals in this respect is symbolic for killing ‘the animal inside yourself’ – the victory of the higher self over the ego in their struggle for control of the inner power of the individual; implicity this symbolizes the victory of dharma over adharma.
This is the climax of the Galungan celebrations. Throughout the day the local temples are crowded with people coming and going, bringing the offerings that have been prepared since Penyekeban. The offerings are presented with mass prayers to Sang Hyang Widi (God), to His manifestations (dewa/dewi, bhatara/bhatari) and to the spirits of one’s ancestors (pitara/pitari). The ceremonies that are privately performed at the house compounds may vary from place to place and will depend among others on the resources and capabilities of the family concerned. With the presenting of the offerings one expresses gratitude for the divine provision of the products of the earth, and one prays for the well-being of body and soul, for prosperity, and for protection.
Umanis Galungan takes place the day after Galungan Day, at the Thursday of Dungulan, the 11th week of the Pawukon calendar. The purpose of this day is to cleanse the bhuana alit (= the micro cosmos, the individual human being) in a physical and spiritual sense. After the ceremony, people perform the so called nyurud (= the taking back the offerings and sharing them with the family members) as a symbol of obtaining blessings from Bhatara Hyang Guru.
Ulihan takes place four days after Galungan Day, at the Sunday of Kuningan, the 12th week of the Balinese Pawukon calendar. At Ulihan Day the Dewata (gods) return to their respective Kahyangan or heavens.
Pemaacekan Agung takes place five days after Galungan Day, at the Monday of Kuningan, the 12th week of the Balinese Pawukon calendar. The Pemacekan Agung ceremony is performed to return the Kala-tiganing Galungan or Sang Kala Tiga, being Sang Bhuta Galungan, Sang Bhuta Dungulan and Sang Bhuta Amangkurat and their followers to their respective places in the invisible world of niskala.
Kuningan Day which falls on Saturday (Saniscara), is the day when Gods and Goddesses accompanied by the holy ancestral spirits (pitara) come down to earth again to bless the people and the universe. It is believed that they will return to heaven in the midday. On this day, Balinese people do self-introspection by doing a meditation for human’s prosperity. Segehan Agung (big offering) is put on the house yard and offerings for the family members are also served.
Purnama or full moon in Bali is always a special day for ceremonies and festivities. Hundreds of temples all over the island celebrate their anniversary on a specific full moon each year. Since full moon is also considered as an auspicious day, hundreds of ceremonies are held in all corner of the island on this sacred day.
Budha Wage Langkir
Budha Wage Langkir is a reocccuring auspicious day for meditation and cleansing the mind of negativity. At this day, which is also known as the day of Sang Hyang Mankik Galih who descended as Sang Hyang Ongkara Mreta to the physical world, the Balinese Hindus pray to Dewa Sang Hyang Sri Nini for prosperity and protection with special offerings. The intended cleansing of the mind starts with a special ceremony called metirtha gocara which is performed with a canang offering and wangi-wangian, sweet smelling incense and flowers at the sangga of the family temple and the plankiran (wall temple) of the bedroom.